|International journal of early years education [0966-9760] Smirnova yr:2011 vol:19 iss:1Character Toys as Psychological Tools need to get through libry when sort library card out.http://www.flowerfeelings.com/contact.htmInternational Play association conference web site:http://www.ipa2011.org/home|
The most common definition is: “ The Science and Art of Teaching” It involves the knowledge and skill that a teacher brings and it is dynamic and reflects ongoing technological and cultural changes.  Robert Slavin was one of the originators of cooperative learning. Working together to support each other, to improve their own learning and that of others. Key elements:
- Positive Interdependence Sink or swim together. Pupils required to work in a way so that each group member needs the others to complete the task. Three musketeers.
- Individual accountability. His or her part of the work is clear. No hitchhking
- One further aspect necessary (other ingredients debateable). The lubricant of cooperative group work: interpersonal and small group skills. Two aspects: the academic task following instructions staying on task, planning, generating ideas . Second element is listening and encouraging consensus, conflict resolution and valuing others.
- Shared goals
Action: Look up: Primary National Strategy Excellence and Enjoyment: Learning and Teaching in the Primary years. 
Cognitive Aspects of Learning:
Affective Aspects of Learning:
Action: Social and Emotional Skills supported with docs SEAL: social and emotional aspects of learning. Research has shown that programmes that teach social and emotional skills impact on pupils academic skills, motivation, attendance and morale. 
Approaches to cooperative learning:
David and Roger Johnson’s approach and Spencer Kagan’s structures
Action: look up.
Also Bloom’s taxonomy of thinking is useful
Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom by Brian Goldfarb 
Friere’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed, spawned three decades of scholarship in education built on the premise that pedagogy is a form of cultural politics rather than a science of knowledge transmission. The second half of the 20th c was marked by the global expansion of communications media and a burgeoning visual culture. Many considered a focus on media as negative, taking away from literacy. Visual and Graphical means of knowledge production can play a major role in social transformation.
Aronowitz based on reception studies, audiences do not just consume tv magazines and popular msic they make readings that gain meaningful knowledge of self identity and community. Warren Crichlow, also included a discussion of actual pedagogical practices. The work of John Fiske, media representations are cultural resources.
There was a move in the 1990’s towards the student as viewer to the student as producer. This enhanced a democratic belief that new technology could enhance individual expression. Traditionally production techniques have been considered an alternative to academic activities, like writing texts. Goldfarb and others, suggest that merging critical understanding and creative thinking with practical media production can create new learning opportunities. Become more aware too of how narrative can come from a persons perspective and influenced by editing and selection.
Individual expression and identifying with the learning? Perspectives:
1. Jolliffe, W., Cooperative Learning in the Classroom: Putting it into Practice. 2007: Paul Chapman Publishing, Sage Publishing.
2. DfES, Excellence and Enjoyment: Learning and Teaching in the Primary Years, Professional development materials. 2004.
3. DfES, Excellence and Enjoyment; Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning 2005.
4. Goldfarb, Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the classroom. 2002, Durham and London: Duke University Press.